Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Mass extinction Events - the 6th one Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Mass extinction Events - the 6th one - Essay Example appened in the planet’s history, mass extinction is an occasion that mankind cannot penetrate, delay or stop especially if they are the primary ones responsible for the planet’s destruction. One is as responsible as the other towards the maintenance of the planet that mankind is living in. There is no reason for finger pointing at this point as to why things are being experienced worldwide (Hallam & Wignall, 1-5). Mass extinctions already happened more than once in the existence of planet Earth. The first mass extinction was said to have happened approximately 500 million years ago and it was the temperature in the planet’s surface that have changed drastically. This event incurred the massive extinctions of species, plants and animals alike. This brought about changes, mostly physical, to those who survive the extinctions. Others would point out these changes as evolution in the species. They needed to evolve and be able to adapt to the surroundings enabling them to survive. Approximately 250 million years ago, another mass extinction occurred and devastated the planet. It was said that during this second mass extinction, it took a while before the surviving species was able to recover. While others failed to adapt therefore becoming extinct (Frankel, 5-10). During the third mass extinction, it was the aquatic species that was confounded. It was after the fourth mass extinction that r eptiles and dinosaurs were said to have evolved. Then around 65 million years ago, the fifth mass extinction occurred. This is the extinction that the generation of today is more aware (Wicander & Monroe, 242; Hoffman, 176). There are scholars who do believe that mankind and the planet is in the middle of the sixth mass extinction as the planet’s composition has been disturbed massively especially in recent centuries or even decades. As mankind is perceived to become more intelligent, the more it aided the events that may cause the mass extinction and even end the human

Monday, February 3, 2020

Special2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Special2 - Essay Example Q1: The type of partnership that the plaintiff and defendant have established is a Term partnership because it envisages a 2 year term plan, and they have jointly pooled their resources for the operation of partnership business. It is for a profit venture that they have jointly set stakes in the firm and they would have shares profits upon mutual consent. The Uniform Partnership Act states a partnership as "an association of 2 or more persons . . . to carry on as co-owners a business for profit. . . No one factor is alone determinative of the existence of a partnership." In this case, one of the partners claimed that Maslbenden’s participation was just that of a financier and not a partner. However, the Court held that Maslbendens involvement in the business supported the claim that he was a partner. (Lupien v. Malsbenden: Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, 1984). Q5: Yes, the capital contribution by each partner is a significant factor in dividing the assets. The Court would like to know the amounts invested by each partner in order to assess the mode of splitting the firm’s assets. This is because partners may not have brought capital into the business in equal proportions, and therefore, it would not be in legal consistency to divide the assets equally. Verdict: I agree with the Judge’s ruling. This is because, in the absence of written contract, the conduct of the parties would bind the partners. In this case, Jeannie Smithers, the defendant wishes to quit the partnership and have it dissolved. In the event there was a written covenant, it could bind the parties. Even a verbal contract is a contract, but the terms and conditions would be as determined by the parties, which may change from time to time. Moreover, only a written partnership agreement could bind the partners in their relationships with other partners and

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Mechanical barrier against infection

Mechanical barrier against infection Take Home Midterm 1.) One example of a mechanical barrier against infection would be the surface layer of our skin. The surface layer of human skin is acidic and very dry, thus making it difficult for pathogens to survive. In addition to this, the surface layer of human skin consists of dead epithelial cells, under which many viruses have difficulty replicating. Moreover, dead epithelial skin cells are frequently being replaced, and thus pathogens that are present on the skin often do not have a chance to cause infection. Therefore, the surface layer of human skin is a very important mechanical barrier against infections. Sometimes they are circumstances under which the surface layer of our skin can be compromised, thus resulting in infection. Several breaches to the surface layer such as through bites, burns, cuts, or trauma can allow for bacteria to enter into the tissue, thus resulting in infection. One such example of an infection that can result from a breach of the skin is Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is transmitted from a bite from an infected tick. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused from the bacterial organism Rickettsia rickettsii and may cause fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and joint pain. In addition to this, burns to the surface layer of the skin can destroy the protective layer and thus allow for many types of bacteria such as staphylococci to colonize and infect the individual. Thus, the surface layer of our skin is an extremely important mechanical barrier against infection and protects us from surface and environmental pathogens. Church, Diedre, Owen Reid, and Brent Winston. Burn Wound Infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2nd ser. 19 (2006): 403-34. PubMed Central. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. CDC, 1 Apr. 2008. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . 2.) In recent years, globalization has lead to many issues associated with food borne illnesses. Some of the factors related to this issue are an increase in the amount of food that is traded between countries, international travel and migration of individuals from different countries, and economic and technological advances that have changed the types of foods that individuals eat. In addition to this, the ways in which foods are prepared are changing, and the introduction of new foods to new regions are some of the factors affecting food borne illnesses. Furthermore, dietary habits of individuals are beginning to shift to a healthier diet and more and more individuals are starting to eat more organic and fresh food. To be able to meet these demands, the United States and other countries have to import certain foods on a seasonal basis. For example, according to the CDC, more than 75% of the fresh fruits and vegetables that are available in U.S. markets and restaurants are imported. It has been estimated that the increased demand for fruits and vegetables has nearly doubled the rates of food borne illnesses. Therefore, individuals are at a greater risk to acquire a food borne illness from contaminated food that is imported from other countries. Currently, one of the largest consequences of globalization and international trading is that when food becomes contaminated it can spread all over the world. In years past, food borne illnesses were thought to be local events and it was easier to ascertain the cause of the illness. However, this is no longer the case and takes much longer now that globalization has occurred. One example of a food borne illness that spread to different countries was an outbreak of shigellosis in eight restaurants caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei that occurred in the United States and Canada between July and August in 1998. It was determined that the illness was associated from the ingestion of parsley. In each case the parsley was found to have been chopped and left at room temperature for several hours before being used. In addition to this, in 6 of the outbreaks it was found that the parsley was traced to a specific farm in Baja California, Mexico. Thus, it was likely that the parsley h ad been contaminated before shipment. Therefore, as seen from these examples, globalization has had a major impact on food borne illnesses and with changes in dietary habits, the increase in international travel and migration, and an increase in imported foods have been some of the main reasons associated with food borne illnesses relating to globalization. Angier. A World in Motion: The Global Movement of People, Products, Pathogens, and Power. The National Academies Press. 2001. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Foodborne Disease Control: A Transnational Challenge. By D. W. Betthcer. 4th ed. Vol. 3. Atlanta: CDC, 2010. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . United States. World Health Organization. Food Safety and Foodborne Illness. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . 3). According to Dr. Nelson El-Amins lecture, vaccinations have had a large impact on infectious disease rates. One such disease that has seen a dramatic decrease in the number of individuals affected is Tetanus. According to the lecture, the number of individuals that had Tetanus in 1947 was about 560-570. Since vaccination for Tetanus has occurred in the United States, there has been a steady downward decrease in the number of individuals affected. In 2002, the number of individuals affected with Tetanus was about 10-20. In addition to this, another disease that has significantly decreased due to vaccination is the rates of individuals affected with Diphtheria. According to the lecture, in 1940, the number of individuals affected with Diphtheria was about 16,000. Since vaccination for Diphtheria, the rates of those infected have significantly decreased. In 2000, the rate for those infected with Diphtheria was almost non-existent. And finally, another example that was presented in D r. El-Amins lecture was disease rates for Polio. At one time, Polio was the most feared disease in United States and caused either paralysis or death. Before there was a vaccination for Polio, Polio affected more than 20,000 individuals per year. In 1955, the first Polio vaccination was licensed and had a significant impact on the rates of those affected with Polio. Today, there arent any reported cases of Polio in the United States. Thus, as seen from the examples presented in Dr. El-Amins lecture, vaccinations have had a significant impact in reducing the disease rates for many infectious diseases, and in some cases, such as Polio, vaccinations have just about completely eliminated Polio in the United States. El Amin, Alvin N. The Changing Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases. PM 527 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Class. Los Angeles. 11 Mar. 2010. Lecture. 4). In 1879, Robert Koch discovered the anthrax bacterium and developed the Kochs postulates for causation. There are 4 postulates that Koch believed must be satisfied in order to establish causation. The postulates state: the bacteria must be present in every case of the disease, the bacteria must be isolated from the host with the disease and grown in pure culture, the specific disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the bacteria is inoculated into a healthy susceptible host, and that the bacteria must be recoverable from the experimentally infected host. One such example of an infectious disease that satisfies the Kochs postulates is Anthrax. Anthrax was the first infectious disease that was discovered by Koch, and it was this disease that gave birth to his 4 postulates. On the contrary, there are exceptions of certain infectious diseases that do not satisfy all of the Kochs postulates. There are many infectious diseases in which infected carriers do not show the signs or symptoms of having the disease. These individuals are thus asymptomatic. One example of this is from the Bartonella species of bacteria. Certain species that are infected with Bartonella do not show any signs of symptoms, whereas other infected species do. Therefore, in cases where the infected individual does not show any signs or symptoms, all the Kochs postulates are not satisfied. In addition to this, certain infectious diseases cannot be grown in pure culture, but rather can only reproduce in living cells. Thus, in cases such as these, the Kochs postulates are also not satisfied. Other examples of infectious diseases that do not satisfy all of the Kochs postulates are cholera, typhoid fever, and herpes simplex. Jacomo, V., and P. J. Kelly. Natural History of Bartonella Infections (an Exception to Kochs Postulate). Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9.1 (2002): 8-18. American Society of Microbiology. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . 5). According to Dr. Nelson El-Amins lecture, there are a few reasons why diseases such as measles and polio have not been completely eradicated even though there are vaccines to prevent these diseases. One of the reasons presented in the lecture for this is due to the fact that some individuals do not receive the vaccination against these diseases out of fear. There are cases of individuals that do not receive measles vaccinations due to concerns that vaccinations have caused certain ailments such as autism. This is evident from a cohort study conducted on unvaccinated children that have not received proper vaccination due to concerns of safety. However, according to the lecture, there is no scientific fact to support the beliefs that autism is associated with the MMR vaccinations. Another reason why certain groups of individuals do not receive vaccinations is because it goes against their religious beliefs and they believe that they do not need to receive a vaccination in order to be protected against diseases. Some of the characteristics for individuals that have not received proper vaccination are individuals that are young, individuals that do not know their vaccination status, and individuals that have migrated from other countries. According to the lecture, in cases in which individuals have not received vaccination, 76% of those individuals are less than 20 years old. In addition to this, 91% of unvaccinated individuals do not know their vaccination status. And furthermore, 89% of unvaccinated individuals are people that have migrated from other countries. Therefore, the evidence shows that the reasons why certain diseases such as polio and measles have not been completely eradicated are due to the fact that not everybody has received proper vaccination. This is either due from individuals refusing to receive vaccination out of fear or some other belief, certain individuals do not know that they have not received proper vaccination, or certain individuals have migrated from other coun tries and have not received all their vaccinations. El Amin, Alvin N. The Changing Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases. PM 527 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Class. Los Angeles. 11 Mar. 2010. Lecture. 6). According to Dr. Wohls lecture on HIV/AIDS, the distribution of AIDS diagnoses has changed amongst the different race/ethnic groups since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. For example, in 1985, about 60% of the total AIDS cases were amongst Caucasians, about 27% were amongst Black/African Americans, about 16% were amongst Hispanic/Latinos, about 1% were amongst Asians, and less than 1% were amongst American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander. As of 2007, these rates have changed amongst the different race/ethnic groups. For example, for Caucasians the rates have decreased to about 28% of the total AIDS cases. On the contrary, rates for Black/African Americans have increased to about 48% of the total AIDS cases. In addition to this, rates for Hispanic/Latinos have also increased to about 21% of the total AIDS cases. For Asians, the rates have remained constant at around 1% of the total cases, and the rates amongst American Indian/Alaska Native and Na tive Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander have also remained constant at around less than 1% of the total AIDS cases. According to the lecture, SHAS examined time intervals between when a person first learned that they had HIV and when they were diagnosed with AIDS. As indicated by the findings, detection rates varied significantly between different racial/ethnic groups. The results showed that Caucasians were more likely than Black/African American or Hispanic/Latinos to have their HIV infection to be detected early (more than 5 years) before their onset of AIDS. Thus, many more Caucasians were more likely to fall into the â€Å"early detection† group in comparison to other racial groups. In contrast to this, Hispanic/Latinos were much more likely than any other racial group to have their HIV infection detected very late (within a year) in their progress to AIDS diagnosis. Thus, Hispanic/Latinos were more likely to fall into the â€Å"very late detection† group in comparison to other racial groups. Black/African Americans were also very likely to have their HIV infections detected ver y late prior to coming down with an AIDS diagnosis, however, the rates of Black/African Americans in the â€Å"very late detection† group was lower than that of Hispanic/Latinos. The rates between racial/ethnic groups for individuals that had their HIV infection detected between 13 and 60 months prior to AIDS diagnosis (â€Å"late detection) was relatively equal between all of the racial/ethnic groups. In addition to these finding, according to the lecture, it was shown that in Los Angeles, individuals that were more likely to be late testers were found to be women, Black/African Americans, foreign born Latinos, U.S. born Latinos, those exposed to HIV via heterosexual contact, young individuals, and less educated individuals. There are many implications associated with late detection of HIV. Individuals infected with HIV that are diagnosed later in life, are not able to receive proper antiretroviral therapy. And thus, those individuals are more likely to suffer from adverse effects in comparison to individuals that are diagnosed earlier in life who are able to receive the proper medication to help slow down their onset of AIDS. In addition to this, individuals that are detected of having HIV later in life are more likely to affect other individuals, thus spreading HIV to other unknowing individuals and further exacerbating the issue. Therefore, as shown from the lecture, there are many negative implications of late detection, and it has also been shown that the distribution of AIDS has changed significantly amongst racial/ethnic groups since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. Wohl, Amy R. HIV and AIDS: Worldwide, the U.S. and Los Angeles County. PM 527 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Class. Los Angeles. 18 Feb. 2010. Lecture. Works Cited Angier. A World in Motion: The Global Movement of People, Products, Pathogens, and Power. The National Academies Press. 2001. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. Church, Diedre, Owen Reid, and Brent Winston. Burn Wound Infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2nd ser. 19 (2006): 403-34. PubMed Central. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . El Amin, Alvin N. The Changing Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Class. Los Angeles. 11 Mar. 2010. Lecture. Jacomo, V., and P. J. Kelly. Natural History of Bartonella Infections (an Exception to Koch?s Postulate). Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9.1 (2002): 8-18. American Society of Microbiology. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. CDC, 1 Apr. 2008. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Foodborne Disease Control: A Transnational Challenge. By D. W. Betthcer. 4th ed. Vol. 3. Atlanta: CDC, 2010. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . United States. World Health Organization. Food Safety and Foodborne Illness. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. . Wohl, Amy R. HIV and AIDS: Worldwide, the U.S. and Los Angeles County. PM 527 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Class. Los Angeles. 18 Feb. 2010. Lecture.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Pilot Fatigue and its role in Aviation Safety Essay

ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to observe the growing concern of pilot fatigue and the role it plays in aviation safety. A brief assessment of the effects and possible solution to this problem will be carried out. A mention of some of the incidents from the past will also find its place in this paper. Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Aviation industry is on a growing spree and in the times to come there are going to be more and more airlines filling the sky. As we move steps further towards globalization we are going to need this service more frequently which further increases the pressure on our airlines. To tackle with this situation, especially when the availability of trained pilots is less than required, the pilots are forced to fly more frequently and for longer hours. This causes physical as well as mental stress to buildup as a result of which the efficiency of pilots decreases. This non-pathologic state resulting in physical and mental stress is known as ‘Fatigue’. Human body is always in need of rest, especially in the form of sleep, after regular intervals of time. Any lack in the required rest causes fatigue to be developed in one’s body. Due to fatigue there can be a feeling of sleeplessness, tiredness or exhaustion in a person. This feeling if effective during flight hours can be really dangerous not only for the pilot but also for the lives of the passengers traveling with him and can cause accidents. The only solution to this problem that has been known so far and will ever be known in the times to come is sufficient amount of sleep. This unfortunately is what the pilots are not getting these days and are not expected to get at least in the near future.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The findings from the past have shown that fatigue was responsible for a large number of aviation accidents. According to a study carried out by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) of flight accidents related to flight crew in US from 1978 to 1990, one of the findings related the accidents to fatigue by stating that   â€Å"Half the captains for whom data were available had been awake for more than 12 hours prior to their accidents. Half the first officers had been awake for more than 11 hours. Crews comprising captains and first officers whose time since awake was above the median for their crew position made more errors overall, and significantly more procedural and tactical decision errors.† (Strauss, n.d.). Sleep and Sleep Loss   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is essential for a human body to get the required amount of sleep. Sleep is considered to be an essential ingredient of our life without which it is not possible to survive. Whenever a person does not get enough sleep a signal is sent by brain to the body which results in Sleepiness. Eyelids start to get heavier and there is fatigue in the whole body. A person starts to loose concentration and may even go to sleep while he is on a job. If there is a deficiency in sleeping hours of a person and suppose every day a person looses 1 hour of sleep known as â€Å"Sleep Loss†, then it goes on accumulating over days and results in what is known as â€Å"Sleep Debt†. This debt if not cleared can cause serious problems ultimately resulting in fatigue. It has been found in researches that before flying a plane it is necessary to have sufficient amount of sleep (about 8 hours) for the pilots. If they are allowed to fly continuously without getting the required amount of rest (or sleeping hours) in between their flying schedules, then fatigue is most likely to develop in them resulting in, loss of concentration, memory   and   alertness, slow reaction time, reduced decision power, and bad mood. All these factors are basic ingredients of making mistakes and thus causing accidents. Crew rest   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fatigue starts to build up from the time one gets out of sleep. Development of fatigue also depends on the amount of time a person was awake before the actual flight operation. Some times there are delays in flight timings due to several reasons ranging from weather conditions to mechanical problems. This means that a pilot has been â€Å"on duty† for a long time before boarding in the plane. Although he may be flying the plane for the normal length of time but delay in flight timing has resulted in him being involved in the activities for much longer, which also results in the pilot being fatigued. Similarly there may be a case of airport congestion as a result of which a pilot cannot land and has to hover in the air for a long time or due to bad whether the plane needs to be redirected to some other destination causing him to fly for longer duration than normal. These instances also cause fatigue to be developed. Overall the fact is that ample amount of rest is essentially required by the human body to keep it fit and fatigue free.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"A brief review of US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) flight time and rest rules for scheduled domestic commercial carriers (US Code Title 14, part 121.471) are as follows† (Strauss, n.d.).: Crewmember total flying time maximum of: 1000 hours in any calendar year. 100 hours in any calendar month. 30 hours in any 7 consecutive days. 8 hours between required rest periods. Rest for scheduled flight during the 24 hours preceding the completion of any flight segment: 9 consecutive of hours rest for less than 8 hours scheduled flight time. 10 hours rest for 8 hours or more, but less than 9 hours scheduled flight time. 11 hours rest for 9 hours or more scheduled flight time. Diet and nutrition   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   People all over the world use coffee as a stimulant to remain awake for longer periods of time. Same is the case with pilots. To remain alert they normally consume coffee. The problem with coffee is that although it keeps a person alert, it cannot prevent body from getting tired and thus fatigued. The body still is in working condition for all these hours and hence the effect of coffee is temporary alertness and not a solution to fatigue. Also coffee is diuretic which means that it discharges more fluids than what it takes in and hence results in dehydration which is a cause of fatigue. It is always good to keep your body fit by exercising but there should be a sufficient amount of rest and consumption of water followed by it as exercises cause a lot of dehydration. However dehydration can also be caused by the fact that inside the cockpit humidity is very. There is always a balanced diet recommended for not only pilots but everyone. A pilot should always ensure a healthy diet which provides sufficient energy as well as nutrients for his body. Hypoglycemia, which is caused by low blood sugar levels, is a major cause of feeling sleepiness. A healthy diet ensures sufficient levels of blood sugar and thus energy, preventing hypoglycemia.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã¢â‚¬ËœFinally, alcohol is known to disrupt sleep dramatically and therefore contributes to the poor quantity and quality of sleep obtained on trip nights. Alternative approaches to the use of alcohol to unwind after duty and promote sleep should be identified and offered (e.g., relaxation skills)’ (Rosekind, 1994). Other causes of fatigue   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the most important factors of causing fatigue, other than sleep debt, is the flight deck environment. Inside the deck there are a lot of factors contributing to fatigue such as lesser availability of space, variation in air flow, low atmospheric pressure, low humidity and presence of a lot of noise and vibration. Also in modern aircrafts a number of additional features and systems have been incorporated which means that the pilots have to handle multiple systems resulting in more stress. History of incidents There have been incidents in the past where fatigue has proved to not only be dangerous but also fatal. A legend in aviation refers to an incident when a pilot went to sleep with his autopilot on and found on waking up that the plane was 2 hours from the nearest destination with only one hour of fuel left. This may just be a story but in many cases researches have proved fatigue to be a cause of dangerous and fatal accidents. Some of the cases have been listed below:- In June 1999 there was a runway accident of American Airlines Flight 1420 in which 11 people died, including the aircraft captain, and many injuries among the 145 passengers and crew aboard the flight KAL Flight 801 crashed in Guam on August 6, 1997, was mainly due to a lack of situational awareness resulting in â€Å"controlled flight into terrain (CFIT).† The captain prior to flying to Guam had flown from Seoul to Australia, back to Seoul, to Hong Kong, and then back to Seoul again before his fateful trip to Guam, including only a few hours of rest in between. Cessna 177B Cardinal was flown by Joe Reid, pilot-in-command in which he, seven-year-old Jessica Dubroff and her father were killed. He suffered fatigue from the first day’s flight. On August 18, 1993, a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed on a 1/4-mile base leg to final. The flight crew had been on duty for 18 hours and flown nine, thereby experiencing sleep loss and a disruption of their circadian rhythms. ‘On January 2, 1989, the captain of a 707 tried to maneuver his plane to land in Salt Lake City after breaking out of the clouds at 200 feet. He dragged his left, outboard engine on the runway, leaving a 60-foot-long groove. Within the preceding 30 hours, he had been on duty for 19 hours, and flown 13 hours. He had been off duty for almost 12 hours, but was only able to get one hour of sleep in that time’ (Printup, 2000). In August 1985, the crew of a Learjet killed themselves and their passenger in a failed approach to Gulkana, Alaska. One of the contributing factors was that the company would shift the crew’s duty/rest requirements from FAR Part 135 to those of FAR Part 121, thereby disrupting their sleep patterns and inducing fatigue (Printup, 2000). Countermeasures Based on several reports a number of countermeasures have been devised to improve alertness to counter fatigue. Preventive measures like 3-4 hours of sleep can restore alertness for 12-15 hours and 10-30 minutes of sleep can do it for about 3-4 hours. Similarly it is advised to rest for 15-20 minutes after awakening and before flying. Some of other means to restore alertness are:- Consumption of high protein diet and less intake of fat and high carbohydrate food. Consumption of large quantities of fluids. Use of caffeine to work against fatigue symptoms if awake for 18 hours or less. Due rotation of flight tasks and frequent conversation with other crewmembers Maintenance of temperature inside the deck to lower levels. Frequent movement of body parts and a possible walk in the cabin. Gradually shift times for sleep, meals, and exercise to adjust to a new time zone (Strauss, n.d.). Conclusion For the safety of pilots as well as passengers the issue of pilot fatigue is of major concern. Growing number of aircrafts in the sky also means longer durations of flight for the pilots, which is a major cause of this problem. History bears the testimony to the fact that fatigue has resulted in numerous aviation accidents resulting in the loss of thousand of lives. To save more lives from getting lost there is a need to solve this problem. Allowing flexible schedules for the pilots is the only viable solution in sight at the moment. Our lives are getting busier and it would be wonderful if they become safer as well. References Dawson, Drew and Reid, Kathyryn. (August 1997). Fatigue, Alcohol and Performance Impairment.   Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://www.eurocockpit.be/media/Dawson-Reid-1997.pdf Dr Samuel Strauss. (n.d.). Pilot Fatigue. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://aeromedical.org/Articles/Pilot_Fatigue.html Goode, Jeffrey H. (27 March 2003). Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue?. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://www.eurocockpit.be/media/Goode-2003.pdf Heath, Brad and Levin, Alan. (Nov. 8, 2007). Fatigue plays role in aviation mistakes. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/1108sleepypilots1108.html Mann, Michael B. (August 3, 1999). Statement of Michael B. Mann Deputy Associate Administrator Office of Aero-Space Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Hearing on Pilot Fatigue Before the Aviation Subcommittee of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure United States House of Representatives. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from   http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/legaff/mann8-3.html Printup, Mark Brandon. (September, 2000). Guest Editorial: The Effects Of Fatigue On Performance And Safety. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm Rosekind, Mark R. (November 1994). Fatigue in Aviation. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://cf.alpa.org/internet/projects/ftdt/alpmag/FATIGUE.html Samel, Alexender,   Wegmann, Hans Martin and Vejvoda, Martin. (1997). AIR CREW FATIGUE IN LONG-HAUL OPERATIONS. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://www.eurocockpit.be/media/Samel-Wegmann-Veivoda-1997.pdf   

Friday, January 10, 2020

Top Samples of Cst Ela Essay Reviews!

Top Samples of Cst Ela Essay Reviews! The debut of each written work ought to have a very clear thesis statement or argument. You'll be provided a question and asked to compose a 150-300 word response. It could sound obvious, but you've got to understand which questions you missed (and more to the point why you missed them) to have the ability to avoid making the very same mistakes again once you take the actual test. The multiple-choice questions may involve a number of things to do to arrive at a suitable answer. Likewise, it has to be logically complete and express a particular idea. I have a great deal of friends at school and all of these are extremely positive and kind. It's known that each and every good thing starts with small measures. The reasons might be absolutely different. The Upside to Samples of Cst Ela Essay ExamEdge is here to assist! At Molloy, we feel that registration shouldn't be the hardest portion of taking a class. This recommended schedule will permit you to get ready for a single test at one time and will offer you a chance to retake any of the tests, if necessary, before completing your teacher preparation program. There might also be other exams and fees which are required in addition to those associated with the NYSTCE exams so as to be certified in the specific position that you're pursuing. Because of this guarantee, the delivered order will incorporate all crucial information. The registration fee for virtually any exam (but for the superintendent exam) is $82. The Tried and True Method for Samples of Cst Ela Essay in Step by Step Detail Furthermore, we've got experts in just about all scientific disciplines to make sure your paper is going to be written by real specialist and based upon a comprehensive research. You will also see thorough info about your performance. These questions check your comprehension of the composition and properties of the planet's atmosphere. Additiona l test questions are made to make certain you're acquainted with weather systems and forecasting along with the consequences of energy transfers. Hearsay, Lies and Samples of Cst Ela Essay For instance, some of them just have zero opportunity to deal with dozens of assignments that keep bombarding from every side. To be certain you get the appointment you desire while allowing yourself enough time to totally prepare, you must make the appointment three or more months ahead of time. Their telephone number is 413.256.2882. In summary, at the present moment school is a significant stage of my life. The precise NYSTCE exams that are needed so as to turn into a certified educator within the New York school system varies based on the specific sort of position which you are interested in pursuing. The NYSTCE bulletin is currently available online by going to this website. Imagine study materials actually intended for teachers! Also, I'd like to speak about our teachers. This NCE score for the ordinary student is subsequently utilised to look up the corresponding NPR. All the students and many lecturers reside on the campus. Samples of Cst Ela Essay - Overview It follows that we take under consideration all your instructions which are more specific than basic features included in the purchase form. We hope you like our products! The EAS contains 40 selected-response and 3 constructed-response products. I got to do a variety of things to find ready. Want to Know More About Samples of Cst Ela Essay? On the day of the Praxis examination, it is very important to cover the test center procedures and regulations and arrive a minimum of 30 minutes ahead of the scheduled appointment in order to permit time to finish the check-in procedure and finish a range of tutorials. My work is centered on bees and I managed to I travel to Arizona to learn from some of the greatest bee researchers on the planet. You are able to know everything that's going to be covered on the test and it won't do you any good on test day if you haven't had an opportunity to practice. It means that in the event that you've been worried about your upcoming FTCE ESOL test, you may rest easy IF you have a great strategy for knowing what things to study and how to effectively utilize repetition to your benefit. Find out whether you're prepared or when you must head back to the flashcards for one more review. There is nobody book which will help you pass the test. With our flashcards, you can center on repetition of the absolute most important concepts for the CST exam without having to spend needless hours attempting to pick out the topics from the source material that are likely to be on the test. Explore our totally free NYSTCE review given by Mometrix.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Analysis Of George Orwell s The Elephant - 1034 Words

George Orwell began the essay with his perspective on British domination. He stated that it is evil and alongside of that it is oppressive. He felt hatred and guilt toward himself and the Burmese people. The people of Burma did not feel threatened because the narrator of the story had killed the elephant. The Burmese people have lost their dignity and integrity while trying to fight off the British imperialism. Orwell uses allegories to describe his experience of the British imperialism and he had his own view of the matter of slaying the elephant. He successfully used ethos, pathos, and logos by attracting the audience to read his story. He had to make a scene in the story to make the people of Burma feel the same emotion. The elephant was the one reason why it makes this story emotional. He used logos to show that he can kill the elephant even if he does not want to so that it does not make him look fool. Logos is used to show logic and persuade an audience by reason. When the author talks about the irony and the reality of imperialism, he compares himself to the figure of a sahib. The comparison to the sahib is a term that was used to name aristocratic rulers. It is an important symbol of their cultural image. British imperialism is a hostile environment and does not justify exploitation by controlling the Burmese people. The story sets the tone of the author’s story to be un-comforting. This story shows his flaws and how he taunts others, even his own people of Burma.Show MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1272 Words   |  6 PagesRhetorical Analysis of George Orwell’s â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† George Orwell, a journalist and an author of 1903 through 1950, is not only the author of â€Å"Shooting an Elephant,† but surprisingly, he is also the narrator and the main character. Orwell’s narrative essay of 1936 takes place in squalid, British-occupied Moulmein, lower Burma. To begin, in the opening of his piece, Orwell describes himself as a young, British police officer who, ironically, despises the British imperial project in BurmaRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Orwell Shooting An Elephant 1189 Words   |  5 Pages   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant†: Effect of Imperialism in Burma Imperialism is a state of mind, fueled by the arrogance of superiority that could be adopted by any nation irrespective of its geographical location in the world. 1. Evidence of the existence of empires dates back to the dawn of written history in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, where local leaders extended their realms by conquering other states and holding them, when possible, in a state of subjection and semiRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1010 Words   |  5 Pagesmake can have long-lasting effects on them.†¯In Shooting an Elephant, by George Orwell, the author goes back to a situation in his life when he was a young adult where he had to make a choice between evil deeds. Many years later, the decision still haunted him. It takes place back when Orwell was a British police officer in Burma. He reevaluates his situation in life when he encounters a moral dilemma; to kill or save an elephant. Orwell is a confused and unhappy young policeman who lives in mentalRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1265 Words   |  6 Pages  Shooting an Elephant is an essay by George Orwell, first published in the literary magazine New Writing in the autumn of 1936 and broadcast by the BBC Home Service on October 12, 1948. The essay describes the experience of the English narrator, possibly Orwell himself, called upon to shoot an aggressive elephant while working as a police officer in Burma. Because the locals expect him to do the job, he does so against his better judgment, his anguish increased by the elephant s slow and painfulRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 951 Words   |  4 Pagesthe iron first, does not necessarily rule. In George Orwell’s â€Å"Shooting An Elephant,† the narrator clearly illustrates that power, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. He implicates that power is an illusion of the oppress, and instead held by the oppressed, which ultimately renders the holder impotent. â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† is the story of Orwell’s experience as an officer of the Imperial British government during a stint in Burma. Orwell constructs a parallel between the devastation ofRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 989 Words   |  4 PagesShooting an Elephant, by George Orwell, the author recounts an event from his life when he was about twenty years old during which he had to choose the lesser of two evils. Many years later, the episode seems to still haunt him. The story takes place at some time during the five unhappy years Orwell spends as a British police officer in Burma. He detests his situation in life, and when he is faced with a moral dilemma, a valuable work animal has to die to save his pride.{3} Orwell is an unhappyRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1233 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Shooting an Elephant† â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† is about the guilt of British colonialism that George Orwell faces as a sub-divisional police officer. Based on his experiences, he has seen the real wickedness of imperialism. In â€Å"Shooting an Elephant†, Orwell displays the evil of imperialism as harsh, belligerent, and provoking. First, Orwell encounters the harshness of imperialism. Furthermore, Orwell says, â€Å" the sneering yellow faces of young men†¦ the insults hooted me when I was at a safe distanceRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 854 Words   |  4 PagesSociety is what pushed the narrator in George Orwell’s â€Å"shooting an elephant† to shoot the elephant. He should have not followed society and formed his own individual opinion. â€Å"I often wondered whether any of the others grasped that I had done it solely to avoid looking like a fool† (Orwell 139). He was more preoccupied with what the natives thought of him then doing what was morally correct. He did not do what was ethically correct and just leave the elephant alone and wait for the owner. The societalRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 953 Words   |  4 PagesThe area of focus I chose was a work from the Innocence and Experience chapter. The work of fiction that I chose to analyze is â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† by George Orwell. The main question is whether what he did in the story was ethical. This story is about the inner fight between right and wrong, â€Å"if I do this†¦Ã¢â‚¬  or â€Å"if I do that†¦Ã¢â‚¬  or â€Å"what if I don’t do anything?† Bottom line is you’re damned if you do, and damned if you don’t. We all do this in some form or fashion, we all have that inner voice tellingRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1232 Words   |  5 Pages1301 02 December 2014 Shooting an Elephant In George Orwell’s essay â€Å"Shooting an Elephant†, Orwell recites a personal experience in which he shoots and kills an elephant while working as a British police officer in the British colony of Burma. While his actions were legally justifiable, Orwell describes his feelings of guilt for his true intentions and rationale for the killing, which he admits to himself as unnecessary and unjust. In slaying the elephant Orwell acts contrary to his own fundamental

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Lucy - 645 Words

Journal for â€Å"The Handmaid’s Tale† by Margaret Atwood Within the first few pages, possibly even within the first few sentences, you can sense the theme of this novel. A dystopian future, possibly post-apocalyptic, and full of fear. Oppression, tyranny, freedom (or lack thereof); all of these things become so plainly present that its almost painful. The intensity of the situation multiplies when it is revealed, slowly, that this isnt thousands of years into the future. In this time, democratic and liberal past wasnt just a myth or whisper, its actually a memory, and a not-so-distant one at that. Whatever happened to cause this new medieval dictatorship is recent and, luckily, still being challenged. Minute, silent victories are being†¦show more content†¦She eats breakfast each morning, lunch each afternoon, and supper each evening. She sleeps in her bedroom and wears a red dress. This is how some perceive her; this is how she was taught to be perceived. But, that is not who she is, and who she never wants to truly become. She p artakes in the underground grapevine, passing on tidbits of information and gossip to other handmaids, the Marthas, anyone who is able to keep the secrets going, and yet stay safe. She has not yet succumed to the ways of the world. She still challenges each decision, and finds small ways to defy the irrational laws. This is how some perceive her; this is the perception very few can see, very few can know about. And then, there is her final identity; whoever she used to be. Whoever she still longs to be. The woman with a husband and a daughter, with a job, a house, rights, freedoms, and even a family cat. In her mind she still is this woman, she cannot forget this woman, and she is doing her best to remember her. Only she can perceive herself like this, and she can never let anyone else see it. It is the most hidden identity she has, and yet it is the most vital one to keep alive. This makes the reader question what it is that defines us as the person we think we are. If everything w e have, everything we love and and cherish, anyone who means something to us, was taken away, would we still be the same person? Would the memory of our past selves be all that we need to define our currentShow MoreRelatedLucy by Jamaica Kincaid Essay1613 Words   |  7 Pagesthroughout our life and this is no more evident than in the writings of Jamaica Kincaid. Her novel ‘Lucy’ explored the characters Lucy’s life experience in flashback of growing up on a small island and her present life in the United States as well as the relationship between the mother and daughter. This portrayal echoes similarities to that of Kincaid life. Like Kincaid, the character in her book ‘Lucy’ were taught to read early in her childhood. As a child, Kincaid found solace in the books she readRead MoreI love Lucy: Lucy Ball1481 Words   |  6 PagesAs the narrator in, If youve never failed, youve never lived quoted, â€Å"You’re wasting your time, she is too shy to put her best foot forward,† this was in reference to Lucille Ball. Ball will forever be known as the crazy and lovable, Lucy Ricardo, in â€Å"I Love Lucy†. In her youth, Ball entered a drama school in New York City; however, while her classmates blossomed, Ball was sent home for being too shy. In the beginning, Ball failed at being outspoken; how ever, she learned, got back on her feetRead MoreThe House On A Rainy Day And Lucy1300 Words   |  6 PagesSusan, Edmund, and Lucy Pevensie are four siblings sent to live in the country with the eccentric Professor Kirke during World War II. The children explore the house on a rainy day and Lucy, the youngest, finds an enormous wardrobe. Lucy steps inside and finds herself in a strange, snowy wood. Lucy encounters the Faun Tumnus, who is surprised to meet a human girl. Tumnus tells Lucy that she has entered Narnia, a different world. Tumnus invites Lucy to tea, and she accepts. Lucy and Tumnus have a wonderfulRead More Mirrorings by Lucy Grealy Essay900 Words   |  4 Pages Mirrorings by Lucy Grealy   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sure, some of us have this great confidence within ourselves about looking great, but that does not hold true for everyone. I understand the pain or disgust, or even disappointment one feels when they look in the mirror and say, â€Å"I wish I could change this or that about myself†. Although this piece is written about the author’s life, it holds meaning and connects with for many people; one only has to dig deep enough to find one. For me, it was to realize whatRead MoreDracula: Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra1127 Words   |  5 PagesMina Harker and Lucy Westenra. The purpose for these two women was for Stoke to clearly depict the two types of women: the innocent and the contaminated. In the beginning, the women were both examples of the stereotypical flawless women of this time period. However, as the novel seems to progress, major differences are bound to arise. Although both women, Lucy and Mina, share the same innocent characteristics, itâ€⠄¢s more ascertain that with naà ¯ve and inability of self control, Lucy creates a boundaryRead MoreAnalysis of Lucy Gayheart by Willa Cather492 Words   |  2 PagesAnalysis of Lucy Gayheart by Willa Cather Lucy Gayheart is a young, spirited, intelligent music student from Havorford, on the South Platte River. In the winters, she attends a conservatory in Chicago, under the tutelage of Professor Auerbach. In Chicago, she lives in a room above a German bakery, where she takes her breakfasts and suppers. These small quarters do not distress her; indeed, she craves the solitude of her own will, her own piano, her own bed. She walks hungrily through Chicago,Read MoreAnalysis Of I Love Lucy 1118 Words   |  5 Pages What are audience of this text persuaded to believe, think, or do and how is this persuasion accomplished? I love Lucy is one of the most popular and legendary television shows from the 50 s with a large audience. As well as it has played an important role on the basic element of the sitcom genre. The fame of this comedy show is for the skills of the actors like Lucille Ball (Lucy) and Ricky Ricardo. This show is about the daily life of marriage. Through this show the audience can relate to middle-classRead MoreLucy, discovered by Donald C. Johanson and Tom Gray, is Our Oldest and Most Complete Human Ancestor991 Words   |  4 PagesLucy The discovery of Lucy is our oldest and most complete human ancestor. She is less than 3.8 million years old hominid of Australopithecus afarensis, which was discovered in November 24, 1974 by Donald C. Johanson and Tom Gray in the Hadar region of Ethiopia. They named her Lucy in reference to the well-known Beatles song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, which played over and over as they celebrated their findings. This uncovering of Lucy was very fascinating and answered many questions toRead MoreLucy in the Sky with Diamonds Journeys Essay661 Words   |  3 PagesEnglish Assessment Task 1 Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds Song – Imaginative Journey The Beatles - primarily John Lennon. The song â€Å"Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds†, performed by The Beatles, written in the year 1967, by John Lennon, takes the listener on a journey into the imagination. The most common interpretation of â€Å"Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds† is that the lyrics of the song follow the journey that one would embark on after taking the drug LSD which would project wild imaginings. OtherRead MoreAnalysis Of Color And I Love Lucy1588 Words   |  7 PagesColor Lighting: How To Get Away With Murder I Love Lucy How To Get Away With Murder, a modern 2015 law and murder television drama, and I Love Lucy, a 1951 live audience comedic sitcom, hold many differences in regards to color and lighting usage. However, if thoroughly analyzed similarities can be discovered. In the season finale of How To Get Away With Murder, the director makes great use of color by means of transitional color, surrealism, color as a symbol, special effect colors, atmospheric